[From: abhishek desai] How to become an iPhone developer in eight easy steps

by Abhishek

———- Forwarded message ———-
From: guardian.co.uk
Date: Tue, Feb 24, 2009 at 6:59 PM
Subject: [From: abhishek desai] How to become an iPhone developer in
eight easy steps
To: abhishek.desai@gmail.com

abhishek desai spotted this on the guardian.co.uk site and thought you
should see it.

 To see this story with its related links on the guardian.co.uk site,
go to http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/gamesblog/2009/feb/10/gameculture-apple

 How to become an iPhone developer in eight easy steps
The developer of iShoot quit his day job after earning $22,000 a day
at the top of the App Store charts. Here’s what you have to do to be
Keith Stuart
Tuesday February 10 2009

You’ve probably heard all about iShoot. Written by a programmer at Sun
Microsystems in his spare time, this Worms-style artillery shooter
blasted to the top of the App Store charts earlier this year and
stayed there for weeks earning its creator enough money to pack in his
day job and become a professional developer.

 You may also have seen the news this week about nine-year-old
programming prodigy Lim Ding Wen who has developed his own simple
painting app for the iPhone. Doodle Kids is doing reasonable business,
attracting 4,000 downloads in less than a fortnight and gaining its
author international news coverage.

 There’s no question about it, iPhone has become the people’s platform.
While the PC maintains a healthy indie development scene, Apple’s
handset, with its low barriers to entry and seamless consumer
purchasing system, is the real rags-to-riches machine. In practically
a month, you can develop an application that will be available to a
global market of enthusiastic downloaders.

 Publishers? Distribution partners? Specialist development hardware?
None of it is necessary. In the same way that cheap, accessible
digital technology has brought film and music making to the masses,
iPhone seems to have sliced through the painstaking game production
pipeline. Everyone can be Will Wright now.

 Or can they? How exactly do you go about creating an iPhone title?

 I’ve spoken to iShoot coder Ethan Nicholas and two British studios
involved in iPhone development  – FluidPixel, responsible for fun
Lemmings-style platformer, KamiCrazy and Connect2Media’s Manchester
team, currently finishing off the hugely promising, Go! Go! Rescue
Squad. Here are their tips to any burgeoning app stars?

 1. Buy a Mac
You’ll need one with an Intel-based processor, running the Leopard
version of MacOS X. It doesn’t have to be a top of the range model,
though. Ethan Nicholas wrote iShoot on a banged-up old MacBook with
1GB of memory, knackered Wi-Fi and an Ethernet port that needed to be
wiggled around to get it to work. The machine did however, afford him
the manoeuvreability he needed: “most of my available development time
involved holding a baby on the couch so my laptop was better suited to
the task.”

 Peter Scott, CTO at Connect2Media suggests Mac Minis, “they are more
than powerful enough, small, easy on desk space when you already have
PCs, three LCD monitors and a bunch of devices. They are also easy to
move round, developers can take them home at the weekend if they want
to continue to work.”

 2. Down the SDK (software development kit)
“Apple provides the free SDK for iPhone development from their
Developer site,” explains Stuart Varrall, Creative Director at Fluid
Pixel. “This includes everything you need to get going, including the
development environment Xcode, the iPhone Simulator for testing,
performance analysers, interface builders and the full documentation
reference library.”

 3. Learn Objective C
This is the primary programming language for iPhone development. “It’s
an extension of C to include object-orientated principles,” says
Varrall. “It has scripting elements to it, so is easier to pick up
than some languages and anyone with programming experience should be
able to transfer their skills.”

 “Here’s a short history of Objective C,” offers Scott, “It was born
out of Smalltalk which was a very early Object Oriented Programming
language developed in Xerox PARC (where Window/Mouse computing really
begun) and as a consequence was heavily adopted by Apple since as
early as the Lisa. Smalltalk is very similar to C.”

 “Objective C was actually created by Next Computing owned by a certain
Steven Jobs. When Jobs returned to Apple, he sold Next to the company
and so Objective C became the main development environment for the
Apple Mac. It is liked because in similar ways to Java, it deals with
many of the problematic parts of programming?. It’s nice, simple,
hides the complexities of the hardware away from the developer and
deals with (on the whole) the major cause of programming issues in C
and C++ which is memory leaks.”

 All well and good, but what’s the best way to actually pick up the
language? “This really depends on where you are starting from,”
explains Scott. “If you are proficient in C/C++ or Objective C then
the learning curve is in getting to grips with the APIs of the iPhone
– the best place to start is the iPhone developer site. If you need to
learn the programming languages themselves then the best place to
start is a beginners book, actually the For Dummies series is very
good for this. Also look at one of the many free tutorials online –
Googleing ‘objective C tutorial’ throws up many places to get these.”

 “The official Apple SDK has a wealth of detail along with examples of
implementing various features,” adds Varrall. “The Apple developer
forum is rapidly growing to be the best place for specific questions
or to get further clarification on something”. He also mentions that
iPhone supports Open GL ES which allows heavy optimisation when
working in 3D. So if you’re thinking beyond a scrolling shooter or
Tetirs clone, you’ll need to look into that as well. Also, many
professional studios write their games in C++ rather than Objective C,
especially if they’re planning to port the code onto other platforms
such as N-Gage of Xbox Live Arcade.

 4. Start writing something!
Forget theory; forget mastering Objective C with your first attempt.
Just set yourself a project and start working. “I knew nothing about
Objective C, Cocoa, or OpenGL prior to starting iShoot. In fact I
barely even knew C,” admits Ethan Nicholas. “I hadn’t really touched
it in a decade. I was a Java programmer for twelve years and it was
quite an adjustment moving from a nice safe language like Java to one
where a single misplaced byte can instantly crash your program.”

 Nicholas’ first aim ? and this is more or less standard procedure in
the development community when presented with a new platform ? was to
get something to appear on the screen. “The first thing I worked on
was the ground. I wanted to create a destructible landscape with
falling dirt. Since I had no idea how to load textures at that point,
and had just grasped the basics of Objective C and OpenGL, my dirt
“texture” was just solid white.  So the first thing I got onscreen was
just a white rectangle that represented the ground.  My wife was
fortunately tolerant enough to understand my excitement at getting
anything, even just a simple white rectangle, on the screen.

 “By day two, my featureless white rectangle had morphed into a
properly textured landscape and most of the dirt-descruction code was
working.  By the end of the first week I had a tank on the screen
firing shots randomly, blowing holes in the ground.  When I finally
got it on to an actual phone and not just the simulator, I found that
it only ran at one frame per second, so I had some considerable
optimisation work ahead of me.”

 If you can’t face starting out on an original project, however,
Varrall suggests a couple of modification tasks. “The SDK actually
comes with a whole host of sample projects that cover most aspects of
development. So the best place to start would be to take one of those
and reverse engineer it and work out how it has been constructed. You
can then build on these by adding new features and create your very
own game very quickly.”

 5. Sign-up as an official developer
If you plan on releasing your masterpiece at any point, you’ll need to
sign up with the iPhone Developer Program. The Standard cost is $99,
and it involves agreeing to Apple’s terms and conditions, and signing
and returning the contract. Even if you’re nowhere near completing the
project, you’ll need to sign up in order to test your code on an
actual iPhone rather than an onscreen emulator. Once you’re on the
Developer Program you’re sent a certficate, which allows you to pair
up with an iPhone device.

 6. Prepare for a few weeks of work?
Depending on the time available, and your level of programming
knowledge, developing an iPhone game can mean as little as a couple of
months’ work. “Including learning Objective C, Cocoa, and OpenGL, I
spent exactly six weeks on iShoot,” says Nicholas. “The hardest part
was adjusting to an unsafe language… after twelve years working in
Java, it’s very difficult to get back into the proper mindset for
debugging crashes.  I had one memory corruption issue where it turned
out that literally only a single byte was being corrupted, and it
didn’t cause the program to crash until several minutes after the
corruption occurred.  It took me three days to find that one?”

 The professional studios I spoke to provided similar timeframes,
though they involved teams rather than lone coders. “KamiCrazy took
three months to develop part-time, so could be done in a month
full-time,” reckons Varrall, who used three programmers, one artist
and a producer. “The programming was focussed on the most part into
making the robust engine that drives the game and included the level
editor, allowing the levels to implemented with ease. This means that
this technology can be re-used and future titles could be turned
around in less time. The art took three weeks in total to produce.”

 7. Submit your app to Apple
Okay, this is the big one. “Finished games have to be submitted to the
App Store using the same interface as music producers use,” explains
Varrall. “It’s a straightforward process of zipping up the file,
uploading it with a description, a large and small icon, and
screenshots. If everything is alright then it usually takes Apple a
week to approve the content and it finds itself in the store. If there
is a problem, such as obvious bugs or Lite apps that are mentioned as
demos or aren’t fully featured, then this can take longer to review
and ultimately reject. In this instance you can fix the issue and
resubmit as many times as you like.”

 “Any iPhone developer will tell you that the provisioning and code
signing is a pain, but once I had that sorted out the submission
process was trivial,” agrees Nicholas. “Fill in the fields, wait a few
days, eagerly anticipate your first sales report… and then watch
everybody completely ignore your app as you sell fewer than 20 copies
a day.  iShoot wasn’t exactly a resounding success in the beginning?”

 8. Adapt, market and survive!
The work doesn’t finish once you’ve made it onto App Store. As it’s
unlikely you’ll have your own in-house QA department, some bugs and
design issues may only surface when hundreds of gamers get their hands
on the code. Consequently, it may be necessary to submit several

 And as Nicholas mentioned, don’t expect an immediate response to the
release ? App Store is an open market, featuring around 20,000
applications and 2,000 games. To get noticed, you’ll need to build a
buzz around the game: engage with the development and gaming
communities, start a blog about the programming process, produce
screenshots and mail out press releases to iPhone news sites like
Pocket Gamer, Touch Arcade and FingerGaming. And, of course, utilise
social networking sites like Twitter, Facebook and Bebo.

 Or just produce a free demo version. iShoot was widely ignored for
several weeks before Nicholas decided to produce a cut-down ‘Lite’
version which he made available for free. “it quickly became the #1
free application, and iShoot sales followed suit. Here is an actual
graph of my daily sales from iShoot’s launch through to when it became
number one. To put things in perspective, you see the biggest spike
before iShoot Lite was released?  That tiny little bump?  That was
Christmas Day, when I made over $500 in a single day. I was quite
excited about that at the time.”

 While at the top of the Paid Apps chart, iShoot was getting over
10,000 downloads a day, at $2.99 each. Take out Apple’s standard 30%
commission and Nicholas was pulling in $21,000 a day. He quit his job
at Sun and is now working on a new game (“My next project involves
airborne sheep, but I’m afraid that’s all I can share at the moment”).
You could be next?.

 Useful links
Stuart Varrall of FluidPixel kindly provided some helpful links for
wannabe App developers?

 The KamiCrazy development blog
The official iPhone development site
Idevgames – a developers site
Iphonedevsdk – a community development forum
Mobile Orchard – information and useful blog posts
148apps – an app review site

 Copyright Guardian Newspapers Limited 2009

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